Run-up to referendum turns even more tumultuous

Two days before the Kurdistan independence referendum, Iraq’s Oil Ministry cautions against interfering with oil operations, Ankara and Baghdad reiterate warnings, and Kurdish parties show signs of fracture.

Energy

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Shell accelerates Iraq drawdown with Majnoon exit

Negotiations begin over handing back the Majnoon operatorship, months after stake in West Qurna 1 was put up for sale, highlighting one major oil company's resistance to Iraq's tough terms.

Politics

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Kurdistan gets Russian vote of confidence

Besieged by international pressure to delay its independence referendum, the KRG gets geopolitical backup from a Rosneft agreement to underwrite oil and gas export pipelines.